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        人乳寡糖Human Milk Oligosaccharides

        2'-巖藻糖基乳糖(2-FL)是一種占比最大的母乳低聚糖(HMO)產品。上?;菡\生物優勢提供人乳寡糖系列HMOs母乳低聚糖 2-FL2-巖藻糖基乳糖) 3-FL3-巖藻糖基乳糖) 3-SL (3'-唾液乳糖鈉鹽6-SL6'-唾液乳糖鈉鹽
        上?;菡\生物提供得人乳寡糖系列產品,請見表1
         

        3'-Fucosyllactose 41312-47-4 C18H32O15 488.44
        2’-Fucosyllactose 41263-94-9 C18H32O15 488.44
        6'-Sialyllactose 56144-12-8 C23H39NO19 633.55
        3'-Sialyllactose 35890-38-1 C23H39NO19 633.55
        Lacto-N-tetraose 14116-68-8 C26H45NO21 707.63
        Lacto-N-neotetraose 13007-32-4 C26H45NO21 707.63
        Lacto-N-fucopentaose I 7578-25-8 C32H55NO25 853.77
        Lacto-N-fucopentaose II 21973-23-9 C32H55NO25 853.77
        Lacto-N-fucopentaose III 25541-09-7 C32H55NO25 853.77
        Lacto-N-fucopentaose V 60254-64-0 C32H55NO25 853.77

         其中2-巖藻糖基乳糖標準品和試劑價格如下:

        貨號品名規格包裝單價Stock
        GY11412-巖藻糖基乳糖標準品/2-FL98%100mg2884Y
        GY1141M2-巖藻糖基乳糖/2-FL90%1g659Y
        GY1141M2-巖藻糖基乳糖/2-FL90%5g2375Y
        GY1141M 2-巖藻糖基乳糖/2-FL90%10g3859Y
        GY1141M2-巖藻糖基乳糖/2-FL90%100g17892Y

        Human breast milk provides the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to eat and digest other foods. One distinctive property of human milk from most other species is the amount and diversity of the free oligosaccharide it contains. These human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) can be present at levels of up to 12 g/l in milk and up to 20 g/l in colostrum. HMO have been attributed with a variety of functions including:

        1) Prebiotic
        2) Decoy carbohydrate
        3) Immunomodulation

        HMO Structure
        Currently at least 130 unique HMO have been identified, all differing by constituent sugars, molecular weight or structure. Many share a common motif characterized by repetitive attachment of galactose (Gal) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in a b-glycosidic linkage to lactose. Additional variety is generated by the addition of fucose (termed neutral HMO), e.g. 3'-Fucosyllactose, or 2-Fucosyllactose, and sialic acid (termed acidic HMO), e.g. 6'-Sialyllactose,  and 3'-Sialyllactose. Addition is via a-glucosidic bonds to generate oligosaccharides from three to thirty two sugars in length. Whilst most of the biosyntheis of HMO is not controlled at the gene level (unlike proteins) the presence and position of fucosylation is governed by the Lewis/Secretor status of the mother.
        Dominant neutral oligosaccharides have been identified as lacto-N-tetraose, lacto-N-neotetraose (05765) and lacto-N-fucopentaose I and V 

        Prebiotic Properties of HMO
        The most abundant HMO is lacto-N-tetraose which is able to survive the acid environment of the stomach and is not degraded by normal gut enzymes. It therefore can pass down to the lower intestine where it acts as a prebiotic which encourages lower gut colonisation by many bi?dobacteria species, which are recognised as essential for normal gut function.

        HMO as Decoy Carbohydrates
        Binding to a host cell wall is critical for the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria including Campylobacter jejuni, E.coli, Vibrio cholera, and Shigella and some Salmonella strains. Many of the virulence factors of these organisms are carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins) which bind sugars displayed on cell membranes. HMO can bind to these lectins acting as decoys and preventing pathogens from sticking to the target cells. An example of this is the inverse relationship between the incidence of C. jejuni, (one of the most predominant causes of diarrhoea in the world) in breast-fed children and levels of 2-fucosyl-lactose in the mother’s milk. (C. jejuni is known to adhere to intestinal 2-fucosyl-lactosamine). Similar antimicrobial effects of HMO have also been demonstrated for calicivirus diarrhoea and infections with heat stable enterotoxin of E. coli.
        During ingestion, HMO coat the throat and are known to inhibit adhesion of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus in?uenzae to human pharyngeal or buccal epithelial cells resulting in the lower incidence of otitis media (inner ear infection) in breast fed babies.

        Immune Role of HMO
        Selectins are glycoproteins which are displayed on the surface of many cells of the immune system and are involved with cell/cell interactions such as the infiltration of tissues in inflammation. Selectins bind to specific fucosylated and sialylated oligosaccharides, e.g., sialyl Lewis x (sLex), on their respective target ligands. HMO share many structural similarities to these carbohydrate ligands and acidic (sialylated) HMO are able to inhibit rolling and adhesion of leucocytes at physiologically relevant concentrations.
        One of these selectin interactions is the formation of platelet/neutrophil complexes (PNCs) which lead to the activation of the neutrophils. PNCs are thought to be involved in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and HMO have been attributed as the agent responsible for the lower incidence of NEC in breast fed infants (85 % lower than formula fed infants) via inhibition of PNC formation.
        Fractions of HMO are also known to inhibit the binding of both Galectins which bind b-Gal and LAcNAc terminated glycans and Siglecs which are specific for terminal sialic acid, their role in immunity or development however has not yet been fully explored.

        其它相關參考:

        血型抗原 Lewis抗原
        Blood Group A type III/IV linear trisaccharide6-Sulpho Lewisa-BSA (3 atom spacer)
        Blood Group A Type II tetrasaccharide6-Sulpho Lewisx-BSA (3 atom spacer)
        Blood Group A type II linear trisaccharide3-Sulpho Lewisa-BSA (3 atom spacer)
        Blood Group A type I linear trisaccharide3-Sulpho Lewisx-BSA (3 atom spacer)
        Blood Group A trisaccharide3-Sulpho Lewisx-BSA (3 atom spacer)
        Blood Group A pentasaccharideLewisx-BSA(3 atom spacer)
        Blood group A type 4 tetrasaccharide-NGLLewisy tetrasaccharide
        Blood group A type 3 trisaccharide-NGLLewisb tetrasaccharide
        Blood group A type 2 trisaccharide-NGLLewisa trisaccharide
        Blood group A type 1 trisaccharide-NGLLewisx trisaccharide
        Blood group A type 4 tetrasaccharide-NGLGlycyl-Lewisa (Lea-gly)
        Blood group A type 3 tetrasaccharide-NGLSulpho-Lewisa (Sodium salt)
        Blood group A type 2 tetrasaccharide-NGLSulpho-Lewisx (Sodium salt)
        Blood group A type 1 tetrasaccharide-NGLSialyl Lewisx -α-methyl glycoside
        Blood group A type 4 trisaccharide-NGLSialyl Lewisa (S Lea)
        Blood group A type 3 trisaccharide-NGLSialyl Lewisx (S Lex)
        Blood group A type 3/4 linear trisaccharide3'-Sulfated Lewis X methyl glycoside
        Blood group A type 2 linear trisaccharide3'-Sulfated Lewis X
        Blood group A type 1 linear trisaccharide3'-Sulfated Lewis A
        Blood group A pentasaccharideSialyl Lewis X pentaose
        Blood group A trisaccharide ester derivativeSialyl Lewis X methyl glycoside
        Blood group A trisaccharide aminopropyl derivative hydrochloride salt3'-Sialyl Lewis X b 1-O-n-pentylamine
        Blood group A trisaccharide amine derivative3'-Sialyl Lewis X- biotin
        Blood group A trisaccharide3'-Sialyl Lewis X
        Blood group A type 3/4 tetrasaccharideSialyl lewis A pentaose
        Blood group A type 2 tetrasaccharide3'-Sialyl Lewis A
        Blood group A type 1 tetrasaccharideLewis Y tetrasaccharide
        Blood Group B type I tetrasaccharideLewis Y pentaose
        Blood Group B type I linear trisaccharideLewis Y hexasaccharide
        Blood Group B type II tetrasaccharideLewis Y 1-O-n-pentylamine
        Blood Group B type II linear trisaccharideLewis X trisaccharide methyl glucoside
        Blood Group B type III/IV tetrasaccharideLewis X trisaccharide 4-methylumbelliferyl glycoside
        Blood Group B type III/IV linear trisaccharideLewis X trisaccharide
        Blood Group B trisaccharide amine derivativeLewis X tetraose
        Blood Group B pentasaccharideLewis X 1-O-n-pentylamine
        Blood group B type 1 linear trisaccharideLewis B tetrasaccharide
        Blood group B type 2 linear trisaccharideLewis B pentaose
        Blood group B type 3/4 linear trisaccharideLewis A trisaccharide methyl glycoside tetrabenzylether
        Blood group B pentasaccharideLewis A trisaccharide methyl glycoside
        Blood group B type 1 tetrasaccharideLewis A tetraose
        Blood group B type 2 tetrasaccharideLewis A heptaose
        Blood group B type 3/4 tetrasaccharideLewis A
        Blood group B type 1 tetrasaccharide-NGL4'-Sulphated Lewis X, Methyl Glycoside
        Blood group B type 1 trisaccharide-NGL3'-Sulphated Lewis X, Methyl Glycoside
        Blood group B trisaccharideSialyl Lewis X, Methyl Glycoside
        Blood group B trisaccharide ester derivativeSialyl Lewis X
        Blood group B trisaccharide aminopropyl derivative 
        hydrochloride salt
        Sialyl Lewis A, Sodium Salt
        Blood group B trisaccharide amine derivativeLewis Y Tetrasaccharide
        Blood group B type 2 trisaccharide-NGLLewis X Trisaccharide, 4-Methylumbelliferyl Glycoside
        Blood group B type 2 tetrasaccharide-NGLLewis X Trisaccharide, Methyl Glycoside
        Blood group B type 3 tetrasaccharide-NGLLewis X Trisaccharide
        Blood group B type 4 tetrasaccharide-NGLLewis A Trisaccharide, Methyl Glycoside Tetrabenzylether
        Blood group H disaccharideLewis A Trisaccharide, Methyl Glycoside
        Blood Group H type I trisaccharideLewis A Trisaccharide
        Blood Group H type II trisaccharide  
        Blood Group H disaccharide  
        Blood group H type 2 trisaccharide  

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